Wednesday, July 15, 2020

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Theories Personality Psychology Print The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on June 25, 2019 Jonathan Downey/Getty Images More in Theories Personality Psychology Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand History Use Revisions Administration 10 Clinical Scales Validity Scales View All Back To Top The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely used and researched clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to help diagnose mental health disorders. Originally developed in the late 1930s, the test has been revised and updated several times to improve accuracy and validity. The MMPI-2 consists of 567 true-false questions and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete, while the MMPI-2-RF has 338 true-false questions, taking 35 to 50 minutes to finish. History The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was developed in 1937 by clinical psychologist Starke R. Hathaway and neuropsychiatrist J. Charnley McKinley at the University of Minnesota. Today, its the most frequently used clinical testing instrument and is one of the most researched psychological tests in existence. While the MMPI is not a perfect test, it remains a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. Use The MMPI is most commonly used by mental health professionals to assess and diagnose mental illness, but it has been utilized in other fields outside of clinical psychology. The MMPI-2 is often used in legal cases, including criminal defense and custody disputes. The test has also been used as a screening instrument for certain professions, especially high-risk jobs, although using it in this manner has been controversial. Its also used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment programs, including substance abuse programs. Revisions In the years after the test was first published, clinicians and researchers began to question the accuracy of the MMPI. Critics pointed out that the original sample group was inadequate. Others argued that the results indicated possible test bias, while others felt the test itself contained sexist and racist questions. In response to these issues, the MMPI underwent a revision in the late 1980s. Many questions were removed or reworded while a number of new questions were added. Additionally, new validity scales were incorporated in the revised test. The revised edition of the test was released in 1989 as the MMPI-2. The test received revision again in 2001 and updates in 2003 and 2009, and its still in use today as the most frequently used clinical assessment test. The most recent edition of the test, published in 2008, is known as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), an alternative to the MMPI-2. However, the MMPI-2 is still used more often than the MMPI-2-RF. There is also an MMPI, published in 1992, thats geared toward adolescents aged 14 to 18 years old called the MMPI-A. With 478 questions, it takes about an hour to complete. In 2016, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF) was published. Like the MMPI-2-RF, its shorter, with just 241 questions that take 25 to 45 minutes to answer. Administration The MMPI-2 contains 567 test items and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. The MMPI-2-RF contains 338 questions and takes around 35 to 50 minutes to finish. Because the MMPI is copyrighted by the University of Minnesota, clinicians must pay to administer and utilize the test. The MMPI should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a professional, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, who has received special training in MMPI use. This test should be used with other assessment tools as well. A diagnosis should never be made solely on the results of the MMPI. The MMPI can be administered individually or in groups and computerized versions are available as well. Both the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF are designed for individuals age 18 years and older. The test can be scored by hand or by a computer, but the results should always be interpreted by a qualified mental health professional that has had extensive training in MMPI interpretation. 10 Clinical Scales The MMPI-2 and MMPI-A have 10 clinical scales that are used to indicate different psychological conditions, though the MMPI-2-RF and the MMPI-A-RF use different scales. Despite the names given to each scale, they are not a pure measure since many conditions have overlapping symptoms. Because of this, most psychologists simply refer to each scale by number. The clinical scales on the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-A include: Scale 1â€"Hypochondriasis:  This scale was designed to assess a neurotic concern over bodily functioning. The items on this scale concern physical symptoms and well-being. It was originally developed to identify patients displaying the symptoms of hypochondria.Scale 2â€"Depression:  This scale was originally designed to identify depression, characterized by poor morale, lack of hope in the future, and general dissatisfaction with ones own life situation. Very high scores may indicate depression, while moderate scores tend to reveal a general dissatisfaction with one’s life.Scale 3â€"Hysteria:  The third scale was originally designed to identify those who display hysteria or physical complaints in stressful situations. Those who are well-educated and of a high social class tend to score higher on this scale. Women also tend to score higher than men on this scale.Scale 4â€"Psychopathic deviate:  Originally developed to identify psychopathic patients, this scale measures social deviat ion, lack of acceptance of authority, and amorality (a disregard for morality). This scale can be thought of as a measure of disobedience and antisocial behavior. High scorers tend to be more rebellious, while low scorers are more accepting of authority. Despite the name of this scale, high scorers are usually diagnosed with a  personality disorder  rather than a  psychotic disorder.Scale 5â€"Masculinity-femininity:  This scale was designed by the original authors to identify homosexual tendencies, but was found to be largely ineffective. Its intended to show how much or how little a person identifies with his or her genders interests.Scale 6â€"Paranoia:  This scale was originally developed to identify patients with  paranoid symptoms  such as suspiciousness, feelings of persecution, grandiose self-concepts, excessive sensitivity, and rigid attitudes. Those who score high on this scale tend to have paranoid or psychotic symptoms.Scale 7â€"Psychasthenia:  This diagnostic label is no longer used today and the symptoms described on this scale are more reflective of anxiety, depression, and  obsessive-compulsive disorder. This scale was originally used to measure excessive doubts, compulsions, obsessions, and unreasonable fears.Scale 8â€"Schizophrenia:  This scale was originally developed to identify schizophrenic patients and reflects a wide variety of areas including bizarre thought processes and peculiar perceptions, social alienation, poor familial relationships, difficulties in concentration and impulse control, lack of deep interests, disturbing questions of self-worth and self-identity, and sexual difficulties. It may show potential substance abuse, emotional or social alienation, eccentricities, and a limited interest in other people.Scale 9â€"Hypomania:  This scale was developed to identify characteristics of hypomania such as elevated mood, hallucinations, delusions of grandeur, accelerated speech and motor activity, irritability,  flight of ideas, and b rief periods of depression.Scale 0â€"Social  introversion:  This scale was developed later than the other nine scales. Its designed to assess a person’s shyness and tendency to withdraw from social contacts and responsibilities. Validity Scales All of the MMPI tests use validity scales of varying sorts to help assess the accuracy of each individuals answers. Since these tests can be used for circumstances like employment screenings and custody hearings, test takers may not be completely honest in their answers. Validity scales can show how accurate the test is, as well as to what degree answers may have been distorted. The MMPI-2 uses these validity scales: The L Scale:  Also referred to as the lie scale, this uncommon virtues validity scale was developed to detect attempts by patients to present themselves in a favorable light. People who score high on this scale deliberately try to present themselves in the most positive way possible, rejecting shortcomings or unfavorable characteristics.The F Scale:  This scale is used to detect attempts at overreporting. Essentially, people who score high on this scale are trying to appear worse than they really are, they may be in severe psychological distress, or they may be just randomly answering questions without paying attention to what the questions say. This scale asks questions designed to determine if test takers are contradicting themselves in their responses.The K Scale:  Sometimes referred to as the “defensiveness scale,” this scale is a more effective and less obvious way of detecting attempts to present oneself in the best possible way by underreporting. People may underreport bec ause theyre worried about being judged or they may be minimizing their problems or denying that they have any problems at all.The ? Scale:  Also known as the “cannot say” scale, this validity scale assesses the number of items left unanswered. The MMPI manual recommends that any test with 30 or more unanswered questions be declared invalid.TRIN Scale:  The True Response Inconsistency Scale (TRIN) was developed to detect people who use fixed responding, a method of taking the test without regard to the question, such as marking ten questions true, the next ten as false, and so on. Fixed responding could be used due to not being able to read or comprehend the test material well or being defiant about having to take the test. This section consists of 20 paired questions that are the opposite of each other.VRIN Scale:  The Variable Response Inconsistency Scale (VRIN) is another method developed to detect inconsistent, random responses. Like fixed responding, this can be intentional or it can be due to not understanding the material or not being able to read it.The Fb Scale:  This scale is designed to show changes in how a person responded in the first half of the test versus how he or she responded in the second half by using questions that most normal respondents didnt support. High scores on this scale sometimes indicate that the respondent stopped paying attention and began answering questions randomly. It can also be due to over or underreporting, fixed responding, becoming tired, or being under severe stress.The Fp Scale: This scale helps detect intentional overreporting in people who have a mental health disorder of some sort or who were using random or fixed responding.The FBS Scale: The symptom validity scale is used for people who are taking the test because theyre claiming that they had a personal injury or disability. This scale can help establish the credibility of the test taker.The S Scale: The superlative self-presentation scale was developed in 1995 to look for additional underreporting. It also has sub-scales that assess the test takers belief in human goodness, serenity, contentment with life, patience/denial of irritability, and denial of moral flaws.

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

Using Fariy Tale Topics to Generate Interest in Your Research Paper

<h1>Using Fariy Tale Topics to Generate Interest in Your Research Paper</h1><p>Fariy Tales and Research Paper Topics are a successful method to stand out for students. A portion of the manners by which you can utilize these subjects to stand out include:</p><p></p><p>Fariy Tales - I am going to give you a Fariy Tale now, which is about me. In this way, here is the Fariy Tale, which you should remove. In this Fariy Tale, you will find out about my preferred round of all time.</p><p></p><p>Fariy Research Paper Topics - Fariy look into paper points are truly fascinating and drawing in themes. Truth be told, understudies love Fariy look into paper subjects since they don't experience a repetitive procedure of keeping in touch with them down. They resemble works out, which help them to be solid and steady with regards to composing the principal draft of their Fariy paper.</p><p></p><p>Fariy stories a nd research paper points - You more likely than not found out about a portion of the other Fariy subjects, for example, - Fariy vengeance, and Fariy effective individuals. These are things that understudies don't prefer to find out about. These subjects are not intriguing to anybody. On the off chance that you are going to understand them, at that point you may be exhausted, or you may lose your interest.</p><p></p><p>Using Fariy Tale subjects in your Fariy paper - There is another approach to utilize Fariy stories in your Fariy paper. You ought to have just perused the Fariy Tale, correct? You can likewise utilize this Fariy Tale in your paper to start interest.</p><p></p><p>Something I saw is that when I was doing Fariy inquire about paper subjects, the understudies become progressively mindful to what I was discussing. Now and then, the entire class is taking a gander at the understudy who is talking, rather than simply a few unders tudies in the class. The understudies are as yet inspired by the point when I was talking. This caused me to understand that I needed to utilize my innovativeness and creative mind to compose the exposition, yet it didn't matter.</p><p></p><p>Fariy Tales and Research Paper Topics - When the understudies discovered that I utilized Fariy stories in my examination paper subjects, at that point I was stunned. For what reason were they keen on the Fairy Tale?</p><p></p><p>It was a direct result of my examination paper point that I turned out to be such a great amount of keen on expounding on an intriguing subject. From that point forward, I began composing my own Fariy Tale and research paper topics.</p>

Tuesday, June 30, 2020

Make PowerPoint Presentations Effectively

<h1>Make PowerPoint Presentations Effectively</h1><p>How to make PowerPoint introductions is a simple inquiry to reply. The most ideal approach to do it is to utilize the PowerPoint layout. In any case, you should ensure that you keep the introduction controls also. Else, you will make some troublesome memories making the presentation.</p><p></p><p>You can utilize a portion of the stunts and procedures in making your introduction engaging with the goal that the crowd will be keen on the introduction and need to keep tuning in to you. At the point when you follow these tips, you can expand the opportunity of the watchers returning home with you without a doubt. Here are a portion of the tips that you can consider:</p><p></p><p>Allow some development of the crowd as far as its position. The introduction time can be excessively long if the crowd is so packed up that the moderator feels awkward to move out from the middle stage. Let the crowd move away from you so the moderator can move to the inside stage or possibly, to one of the tables close to the front and simply talk from there.</p><p></p><p>Another evident tip is to not utilize a similar slide in each slide. You may have arranged a similar slide for each slide however you can generally stir up the slide with the goal that the watchers are not confounded. This is the least difficult technique for making PowerPoint presentations.</p><p></p><p>Make a natural foundation first. This is the best strategy for carrying your crowd to your stage. You can utilize the recognizable foundation so they are as of now acquainted with the visuals of the introduction and they will have the option to listen more easily.</p><p></p><p>Remember that you don't need to stress over the completing contacts. This is the most significant point to consider when you are going to make PowerPoint present ations.</p><p></p><p>If you believe that your introduction is excessively short, don't complete it early. Try not to remain for a really long time, since it would mean you don't have any data to present to the audience.</p><p></p><p>When you are utilizing an introduction programming, you need to make it stick out so individuals will get it when they have to discover it. Attempt to sort out the introduction so that the watchers can without much of a stretch find what they are searching for. This is additionally the most ideal approach to make PowerPoint introductions simple and advantageous for the viewers.</p>

Thursday, June 18, 2020

Using the Kaplan Video Essay by Kira Instructor, Brian Hanson

<h1>Using the Kaplan Video Essay by Kira Instructor, Brian Hanson</h1><p>In this article I am going to discuss a significant apparatus, the Kaplan Video Essay by Kira teacher, Brian Hanson. One of the benefits of these Kaplan Essay's is that they are quick, modest and can be directed without any problem. As the HR of the world is getting increasingly convoluted, utilizing the correct learning strategy for the activity is turning out to be more important.</p><p></p><p>When we talk about the recordings, we can say that it is a very entrenched methodology of the Kaplan Video Essay by Kira Instructor, Brian Hanson. With regards to picking the best course of the Kaplan on a video group, you have a great deal of decisions. You need to settle on a clinical video and a quickened one. For instance, there are recordings that are for the clinical understudies, quickened for the alumni level understudies and clinical for those with no clinical experience .</p><p></p><p>Another thing you have to consider with regards to utilizing the Video Essay is the methodology utilized. The course material is structured by Brian Hanson, a popular language instructor who works for General Electric. These recordings will assist you with learning compelling correspondence methods and fundamental study hall systems. The other primary advantage is that you don't need to concentrate hard in light of the fact that you can simply watch the video at whatever point you want.</p><p></p><p>When you think about a coach, a great many people think about certain guides who participate in a course or somebody who is setting themselves up to step through an examination or plan for a test. In all actuality by and large, mentors just examination to breeze through the tests. The main distinction is that they're focusing on what they have to do so as to succeed.</p><p></p><p>It is significant that you feel good with the entire course since you would prefer not to get overpowered by a full course. For instance, there are recordings that will just cover a piece of the whole course. At the point when you have a full course, you will no doubt find that you need to concentrate more than you thought.</p><p></p><p>It is an extraordinary thought to peruse the material online also. Despite the fact that you will have the option to show signs of improvement results, you will in all likelihood need to invest more energy to consider in light of the fact that you won't have the option to work with a real coach. Simply ensure that you recognize what material is imperative to you. When you finish the course, you will have the option to concentrate from home, without anybody viewing your back.</p><p></p><p>If you feel that you need more time for learning, at that point you should utilize the Video Essay by Kira Instructor, Brian Hanson. This c ourse is going to assist you with improving your relational abilities, improve your exploration aptitudes and set you up for different meetings. Along these lines, you will be ready to propel your profession and help your companions to do the same.</p>

Friday, June 12, 2020

Finding Papers in the Bard College Library - Things to Consider

Discovering Papers in the Bard College Library - Things to ConsiderAs you have likely found on the off chance that you are an enthusiastic peruser of online writing, or books when all is said in done, discovering papers in the Bard College library is a serious test. There are a few distinct purposes behind this, some of which we will examine underneath. The issues, and to the degree arrangements, are reliant on how you utilize the Internet to find paper.Sometimes it very well may be hard to see precisely what you need, since you are not utilizing good judgment. Now and again, you may not understand that the reference number you need was at that point utilized somewhere else in the content, accordingly you are burning through your time. Another basic issue is the word 'paper' is regularly misread as 'material', in spite of the fact that this is a strict mistake, we are additionally going to discuss this in a second.When you do discover papers, a couple of things should be contemplated when searching for papers in the troubadour's school library. You first need to recall that one of the primary inquiries that ought to be posed to when beginning a hunt is, 'The place do I discover papers?' now and again, the appropriate response will be effortlessly expressed, in different cases, the trouble in finding them will come into play.If you can discover the library, and you know where the specific article is found, the following thing to search for is the place you can locate the specific bit of paper you are searching for. While looking on the web for the papers, it is critical to remember that in many cases, paper that has been reproduced in different spots can be found in different places also. At the end of the day, on the off chance that you need the specific thing you are scanning for, at that point you have to evaluate a few roads before you make any choice.Another reason that discovering papers in the minstrel's school library can be troublesome is this is one of the significant print assets in the country. So for some understudies who love to explore, the best way to get papers from the troubadour's school library is to print them off. This implies you have to have a PC with enough force and memory accessible, or the additional memory to hold the printed articles.Getting papers from the troubadour's school library can be troublesome, yet it isn't incomprehensible. With some additional examination, some persistence, and a little favorable luck, you can really discover your papers. Simply ensure you pose the inquiry, 'Where do I discover papers?'Finding papers in the versifier's school library can be exceptionally straightforward, on the off chance that you realize where to look, and in the event that you are eager to pay for the time it takes to look through the web. For some individuals, the expense of time is an a lot greater factor than the expense of paper, so once more, simply make certain to ask yourself, 'Where do I discover papers?'

Saturday, June 6, 2020

Christmas Carol Essay Topics - Why Not Teach a Story?

<h1>Christmas Carol Essay Topics - Why Not Teach a Story?</h1><p>Do you have Christmas Carol Essay Topics? While I like to accept that my understudies are searching for answers, some of the time, they don't have the foggiest idea where to look. They will think they are being engaged, however you know, they could simply be focusing. Try not to be fooled.</p><p></p><p>Sometimes, they see what you are doing and it nearly seems as though you are attempting to show them a thing or two. You're attempting to disclose to them something about Christmas. At that point they'll most likely think you are an educator who shows a lesson.</p><p></p><p>Well, I'm not going to disclose to you that you need to utilize Carols each exercise or you are showing a thing or two. The fact of the matter is that on the off chance that your exercises are unsurprising and there is no test, at that point you are showing a thing or two. In the event t hat your exercises are somewhat all the more testing, however you don't need to extend yourself excessively far out of your usual range of familiarity, at that point you are benefiting some teaching.</p><p></p><p>In the end, you would prefer not to show them how to understand Carols. I'm grieved. You need to show them how to peruse the story and comprehend the characters, yet not mention to them what Carol is stating, or give them the lyrics.</p><p></p><p>In short, Carol and Chorus tunes are extraordinary in light of the fact that you don't have to attempt to show them anything. You can instruct them to sing and that is an incredible aptitude. Along these lines, take out the components of the piece that is going to cause it to appear to be a battle and placed in certain stanzas that get them to sing and enjoy.</p><p></p><p>Even when you use Chorus, you would prefer not to tell them that Carol's melodies are hard to peruse. That won't help you. You need them to appreciate the whole story. You need them to need to figure out how to peruse Carol's accounts since they will appreciate perusing and possibly realizing how to peruse Carol's songs.</p><p></p><p>As I said previously, you don't need to utilize Carols constantly. In any case, on the off chance that you can include a smidgen of a test to a specific piece of the exercise, and it's pleasant for the understudy, at that point you will give them that there are things to gain from a story. Furthermore, that is an extremely significant lesson.</p>

Friday, June 5, 2020

Tips For Writing Your Dissertation

<h1>Tips For Writing Your Dissertation</h1><p>A theory exposition is a significant piece of your last composition. Composing the proposal is a huge advance, and you should ensure you don't disillusion. Postulation entries are regularly utilized for more elevated level alumni courses. A decent proposal will stand apart as being unique, if not really a showstopper, and give you that completing point you need your scholastic profession to have.</p><p></p><p>Thesis entries regularly require a ton of work and composing. One of the principal things you should achieve is to start composing your postulation. Over the span of composing your postulation, you will unavoidably run into various hindrances. Albeit a large portion of these deterrents are not unconquerable, they can even now be hard to survive. Here are some useful hints for conquering these obstacles and ensuring your theory is done properly.</p><p></p><p>Many studen ts take a crack at undergrad programs who later choose they need to turn into an instructor. In spite of the fact that educating is an amazing vocation decision, it isn't generally the best decision. There are numerous different parts of the scholarly world, which can be more compensating than instructing. One of these perspectives is the quest for your thesis.</p><p></p><p>A proposal is regularly a significant task which numerous understudies decide to attempt. There are numerous reasons why one would decide to compose a proposal. A few reasons may incorporate needing to demonstrate to the educator that they are a decent essayist or to promote their training in a specific area.</p><p></p><p>Writing a proposition will be diverse for each individual. There are a few strategies which will be simple for certain individuals and others which might be testing. Ensuring that you pick a decent program will enable you to choose what course to t ake and how to compose a proposal that will be remarkable and separate you from the crowd.</p><p></p><p>Answering a typical inquiry is that what makes a postulation not quite the same as an exploration paper? While an examination paper doesn't address all the material that will be in your paper, a proposition works superbly of spreading out a reasonable story. This implies on the off chance that you are posed an inquiry about your postulation in your meeting, the individual is bound to comprehend your paper and the subtleties it contains.</p><p></p><p>If you are preparing to compose your proposition application, there are a wide range of assets that you can utilize. There are numerous books that will walk you through the procedure and there are likewise numerous self improvement assets on the web. These assets will assist you with brainstorming and to get thoughts from inside yourself. They will likewise assist you with thinking of an outline.</p><p></p><p>In your composition, you should remain engaged and legit. You can't fall into literary theft on the off chance that you know the principles and arrangement. Theory applications are a since quite a while ago, drawn out procedure, so don't permit yourself to get hindered by cutoff times and put an excessive amount of focus on yourself.</p>